Case

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Case opens a case statement. The case statement compares the value of an ordinal expression to each selector, which can be a constant, a subrange, or a list of them separated by commas. The selector field is separated from action field by Colon.

The case statement includes the reserved words Of and End. Else can be used if needed, too.


 case place of
   1: ShowMessage('Gold medal');
   2: ShowMessage('Silver medal');
   3: ShowMessage('Bronze medal'); 
   else ShowMessage('Better luck next time'); 
 end;

Contents

WhatIsChar

 function WhatIsChar( c:char ):string;
 var
   s : string;
 begin
   s := '';
   case c of
     '0' .. '9' : s := 'digit (0-9)';
     'a' .. 'z' : s := 'lowercase letter (a-z)';
     'A' .. 'Z' : s := 'uppercase letter (A-Z)';
     '+' , '-'  : s := 'sign (+ or -)';
   end;
   result := s;
 end;

Case string

Case of works on strings. The Pascal language allows you to "Case of" on a string variable.

const
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_ANDORRA  = 'AND';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_AUSTRALIA = 'AUS';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_AUSTRIA = 'AUT';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_BELGIUM = 'BEL';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_BRAZIL = 'BRA';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CANADA = 'CAN';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CHINA = 'CHN';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CZECH_REPUBLIC = 'CZE';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CYPRUS = 'CYP';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_GERMANY = 'DEU';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_DENMARK = 'DNK';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SPAIN = 'ESP';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_ESTONIA = 'EST';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_FINLAND = 'FIN';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_FRANCE = 'FRA';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_GREECE = 'GRC';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_INDIA = 'IND';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_IRELAND = 'IRL';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_ITALY = 'ITA';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_JAPAN = 'JPN';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_LITHUANIA = 'LTU';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_LATVIA = 'LVA';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_LUXEMBOURG = 'LUX';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MALTA = 'MLT';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MEXICO = 'MEX';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MONACO = 'MCO';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MONTENEGRO = 'MNE';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_NAURU = 'NRU';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_NETHERLANDS = 'NLD';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_NORWAY = 'NOR';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_POLAND = 'POL';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_PORTUGAL = 'PRT';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_REPUBLIC_OF_KOREA = 'KOR';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_RUSSIAN_FEDERATION = 'RUS';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SAN_MARINO = 'SMR';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SLOVAKIA = 'SVK';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SLOVENIA = 'SVN';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SWEDEN = 'SWE' ;
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SWITZERLAND = 'CHE';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_UNITED_KINGDOM_OF_GREAT_BRITAIN_AND_NORTHERN_IRELAND = 'GBR';
  ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_UNITED_STATES_OF_AMERICA = 'USA';
 
 
  ISO_4217_EURO = 'EUR';
  ISO_4217_AUSTRALIAN_DOLLAR = 'AUD';
  ISO_4217_BRAZILIAN_REAL = 'BRL';
  ISO_4217_CANADIAN_DOLLAR = 'CAD';
  ISO_4217_CHINESE_YUAN = 'CNY';
  ISO_4217_CZECH_KORUNA = 'CZK' ;
  ISO_4217_DANISH_KRONE = 'DKK' ;
  ISO_4217_INDIAN_RUPEE = 'INR';
  ISO_4217_POUND_STERLING = 'GBP' ;
  ISO_4217_JAPANESE_YEN  = 'JPY';
  ISO_4217_MEXICAN_PESO = 'MXN';
  ISO_4217_NORWEGIAN_KRONE = 'NOK' ;
  ISO_4217_POLISH_ZLOTY = 'PLN' ;
  ISO_4217_RUSSIAN_RUBLE = 'RUB' ;
  ISO_4217_SOUTH_KOREAN_WON = 'KRW';
  ISO_4217_SWEDISH_KRONA = 'SEK' ;
  ISO_4217_SWISS_FRANC = 'CHF' ;
  ISO_4217_UNITED_STATES_DOLLAR = 'USD' ;
 
function ISO_4217_currency_name ( ISO_3166_1_alpha_3_code: string): string;
begin
  Case ISO_3166_1_alpha_3_code  of
    // Eurozone
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_ANDORRA, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_AUSTRIA,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_BELGIUM,ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CYPRUS,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_GERMANY, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SPAIN,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_ESTONIA, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_FINLAND,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_FRANCE, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_GREECE,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_IRELAND, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_ITALY,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_LITHUANIA, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_LATVIA,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_LUXEMBOURG, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MONACO,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MALTA, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MONTENEGRO,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_NETHERLANDS, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_PORTUGAL,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SAN_MARINO, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SLOVAKIA,
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SLOVENIA : result := ISO_4217_EURO ;
 
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_AUSTRALIA, ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_NAURU :
          result := ISO_4217_AUSTRALIAN_DOLLAR;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_BRAZIL : result := ISO_4217_BRAZILIAN_REAL;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CANADA : result := ISO_4217_CANADIAN_DOLLAR;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CHINA : result := ISO_4217_CHINESE_YUAN;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_CZECH_REPUBLIC : result := ISO_4217_CZECH_KORUNA ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_DENMARK : result := ISO_4217_DANISH_KRONE ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_INDIA : result := ISO_4217_INDIAN_RUPEE;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_JAPAN : result := ISO_4217_JAPANESE_YEN;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_MEXICO : result := ISO_4217_MEXICAN_PESO;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_NORWAY : result := ISO_4217_NORWEGIAN_KRONE ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_POLAND : result := ISO_4217_POLISH_ZLOTY ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_REPUBLIC_OF_KOREA : result := ISO_4217_SOUTH_KOREAN_WON ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_RUSSIAN_FEDERATION : result := ISO_4217_RUSSIAN_RUBLE ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SWEDEN : result := ISO_4217_SWEDISH_KRONA ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_SWITZERLAND : result := ISO_4217_SWISS_FRANC ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_UNITED_KINGDOM_OF_GREAT_BRITAIN_AND_NORTHERN_IRELAND :
          result := ISO_4217_POUND_STERLING ;
    ISO_3166_1_ALPHA_3_UNITED_STATES_OF_AMERICA :
          result := ISO_4217_UNITED_STATES_DOLLAR ;
  end;
end;

Hexadecimal input

If hexadecimal number are used, it is considered that they are unsigned:

 case place of
   $1: ShowMessage('Gold medal');
   $2: ShowMessage('Silver medal');
   $3: ShowMessage('Bronze medal'); 
   else ShowMessage('Better luck next time'); 
 end;


If a hexadecimal is a different kind of a variable, for example Shortint, values shall be cast:

 case place of
   Shortint($C3): ShowMessage('Gold medal');  //C3= -61;
   Shortint($34): ShowMessage('Silver medal');
   Shortint($58): ShowMessage('Bronze medal'); 
   else ShowMessage('Better luck next time'); 
 end;

or another solution can be used:

var
  myplace : ShortInt;
  place   : Byte absolute myplace;
begin
   myplace:=-61;
   case place of
     $C3: ShowMessage('Gold medal');
     $34: ShowMessage('Silver medal');
     $58: ShowMessage('Bronze medal');
   else ShowMessage('Better luck next time');
   end;

Variant Record

Case is used in Variant Record, too. A Variant Record is also called a tagged union.

  type
 
   ScaleKelvin = 223 .. 323;
   ScaleCelsius = -50 .. 50;
 
   TemperatureScale = ( celsius, kelvin ) ;
   Temperature = record
    case scale :   TemperatureScale of
     celcius : (celsius_value : ScaleCelsius);
     kelvin : (kelvin_value : ScaleKelvin);
   end;

See also

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