# Networking

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This page contains both tutorials/code and information with regard to network programming with Lazarus as well as plain FPC.

## TCP/IP Protocol

Note: Because there are multiple libraries (Synapse, lnet, fphttpclient, Indy,...) that provide networking functionality for FPC/Lazarus, many examples can be written for multiple libraries. Therefore you may see the same examples multiple times - for different libraries. Have a look at the [1] or [2] frameworks for examples on how to build frameworks that can use multiple network libraries

### CGI/FastCGI - REST, CRUD, chat, blog, web page etc.

These functionalities can be used with fcl-web. They are also built into the Brook framework. Please have a look at this page.

See the Synapse page.

### Webserver example

Given below is an example http server written with Synapse and tested in Win XP and Mac OS X, after changing the Synapse source to use a fixed constant $20000 as MSG_NOSIGNAL, because this constant isn't present in the sockets unit in Mac OS X. Note: please send your bug reports to the Synapse project - they are quite responsive - so everybody profits from improvements. To do: check if this modification is still needed for current (Oct 2012) Synapse { The Micro Pascal WebServer This is a very simple example webserver implemented with the Synapse library. It works with blocking sockets and a single thread, so it can only handle one request at a given time. It will write the headers that it receives from the browser to the standard output. It serves a fixed webpage for the / URI For any other URI it will return 404 not found } program upserver; {$ifdef fpc}
{$mode delphi} {$endif}

{\$apptype console}

uses
Classes, blcksock, sockets, Synautil, SysUtils;

{@@
appropriate response
}
procedure AttendConnection(ASocket: TTCPBlockSocket);
var
timeout: integer;
s: string;
method, uri, protocol: string;
OutputDataString: string;
ResultCode: integer;
begin
timeout := 120000;

s := ASocket.RecvString(timeout);
WriteLn(s);
method := fetch(s, ' ');
uri := fetch(s, ' ');
protocol := fetch(s, ' ');

repeat
s := ASocket.RecvString(Timeout);
WriteLn(s);
until s = '';

// Now write the document to the output stream

if uri = '/' then
begin
// Write the output document to the stream
OutputDataString :=
'<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"'
+ ' "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">' + CRLF
+ '<html><h1>Teste</h1></html>' + CRLF;

// Write the headers back to the client
ASocket.SendString('HTTP/1.0 200' + CRLF);
ASocket.SendString('Content-type: Text/Html' + CRLF);
ASocket.SendString('Content-length: ' + IntTostr(Length(OutputDataString)) + CRLF);
ASocket.SendString('Connection: close' + CRLF);
ASocket.SendString('Date: ' + Rfc822DateTime(now) + CRLF);
ASocket.SendString('Server: Servidor do Felipe usando Synapse' + CRLF);
ASocket.SendString('' + CRLF);

//  if ASocket.lasterror <> 0 then HandleError;

// Write the document back to the browser
ASocket.SendString(OutputDataString);
end
else
ASocket.SendString('HTTP/1.0 404' + CRLF);
end;

var
ListenerSocket, ConnectionSocket: TTCPBlockSocket;
begin
ListenerSocket := TTCPBlockSocket.Create;
ConnectionSocket := TTCPBlockSocket.Create;

ListenerSocket.CreateSocket;
ListenerSocket.setLinger(true,10);
ListenerSocket.bind('0.0.0.0','1500');
ListenerSocket.listen;

repeat
begin
ConnectionSocket.Socket := ListenerSocket.accept;
WriteLn('Attending Connection. Error code (0=Success): ', ConnectionSocket.lasterror);
AttendConnection(ConnectionSocket);
ConnectionSocket.CloseSocket;
end;
until false;

ListenerSocket.Free;
ConnectionSocket.Free;
end.

### TCP/IP Client - Server Example using built-in FCL-Net components

Please have a look at this blog post.

These examples (using the FPC/Lazarus built in fphttpclient) can be found at fphttpclient#Examples

## WebServices

According to the W3C a Web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network. It has an interface that is described in a machine-processable format such as WSDL. Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its interface using messages, which may be enclosed in a SOAP envelope, or follow a REST approach. These messages are typically conveyed using HTTP, and are normally comprised of XML in conjunction with other Web-related standards. Software applications written in various programming languages and running on various platforms can use web services to exchange data over computer networks like the Internet in a manner similar to inter-process communication on a single computer. This interoperability (e.g., between Windows and Linux applications) is due to the use of open standards. OASIS and the W3C are the primary committees responsible for the architecture and standardization of web services. To improve interoperability between web service implementations, the WS-I organisation has been developing a series of profiles to further define the standards involved.

### Web Service Toolkit for FPC & Lazarus

Web Service Toolkit is a web services package for FPC and Lazarus.

• Web Development Portal
• Networking libraries - comparison of various networking libraries
• Brook Framework - The perfect Free Pascal framework for your web applications. It's pure Pascal. You don't need to leave your preferred programming language.
• FastPlaz - Fast Web Framework for pascal. More features like theme/templating, simple Model, session, mailer, etc.
• Sockets - TCP/IP Sockets components
• fcl-net - Networking library supplied with FPC
• Indy_with_Lazarus - Networking Components； How to install
• lNet - Lightweight Networking Components
• Synapse - Serial port and synchronous TCP/IP Library
• XML Tutorial - XML is often utilized on network communications
• FPC and Apache Modules
• fcl-web - Also known as fpWeb, this is a library to develop web applications which can be deployed as cgi, fastcgi or apache modules.
• Secure Programming
• Internet Tools - A wrapper around Synapse/wininet/Android's httpcomponents simplifying https and redirections, and a XPath/XQuery/CSS Selector/JSONiq engine to process the downloaded pages