# Difference between revisions of "Basic Pascal Tutorial/Chapter 1/Assignment and Operations"

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+ | {{Basic Pascal Tutorial/Chapter 1/Assignment and Operations}} | ||

+ | {{TYNavigator|Chapter 1/Variables and Data Types|Chapter 1/Standard Functions}} | ||

+ | |||

1E - Assignment and Operations (author: Tao Yue, state: unchanged) | 1E - Assignment and Operations (author: Tao Yue, state: unchanged) | ||

Line 4: | Line 7: | ||

To assign a value to a variable, follow this syntax: | To assign a value to a variable, follow this syntax: | ||

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | |

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

variable_name := expression; | variable_name := expression; | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

+ | |||

Note that unlike other languages, whose assignment operator is just an equals sign, Pascal uses a colon followed by an equals sign, similarly to how it's done in most computer algebra systems. | Note that unlike other languages, whose assignment operator is just an equals sign, Pascal uses a colon followed by an equals sign, similarly to how it's done in most computer algebra systems. | ||

The expression can either be a single value: | The expression can either be a single value: | ||

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | |

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

some_real := 385.385837; | some_real := 385.385837; | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

+ | |||

or it can be an arithmetic sequence: | or it can be an arithmetic sequence: | ||

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | |

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

some_real := 37573.5 * 37593 + 385.8 / 367.1; | some_real := 37573.5 * 37593 + 385.8 / 367.1; | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

+ | |||

The arithmetic operators in Pascal are: | The arithmetic operators in Pascal are: | ||

+ | |||

{| style="background-color:#f5f5f5" cellspacing=5 | {| style="background-color:#f5f5f5" cellspacing=5 | ||

!Operator !!Operation !!Operands !!Result | !Operator !!Operation !!Operands !!Result | ||

Line 36: | Line 46: | ||

Each variable can only be assigned a value that is of the same data type. Thus, you cannot assign a real value to an integer variable. However, certain data types will convert to a higher data type. This is most often done when assigning integer values to real variables. Suppose you had this variable declaration section: | Each variable can only be assigned a value that is of the same data type. Thus, you cannot assign a real value to an integer variable. However, certain data types will convert to a higher data type. This is most often done when assigning integer values to real variables. Suppose you had this variable declaration section: | ||

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | |

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

var | var | ||

some_int : integer; | some_int : integer; | ||

some_real : real; | some_real : real; | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

− | When the following block of statements executes | + | |

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | When the following block of statements executes: |

+ | |||

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

some_int := 375; | some_int := 375; | ||

some_real := some_int; | some_real := some_int; | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

+ | |||

<tt>some_real</tt> will have a value of <tt>375.0</tt>. | <tt>some_real</tt> will have a value of <tt>375.0</tt>. | ||

− | Changing one data type to another is referred to as typecasting. Modern Pascal compilers support explicit typecasting in the manner of C, with a slightly different syntax. However, typecasting is usually used in low-level situations and in connection with object-oriented programming, and a beginning programming student will not need to use it. Here is information on typecasting from the GNU Pascal manual. | + | Changing one data type to another is referred to as typecasting. Modern Pascal compilers support explicit typecasting in the manner of C, with a slightly different syntax. However, typecasting is usually used in low-level situations and in connection with object-oriented programming, and a beginning programming student will not need to use it. Here is [http://www.gnu-pascal.de/gpc-es/Type-Casts.html information on typecasting from the GNU Pascal manual]. |

In Pascal, the minus sign can be used to make a value negative. The plus sign can also be used to make a value positive, but is typically left out since values default to positive. | In Pascal, the minus sign can be used to make a value negative. The plus sign can also be used to make a value positive, but is typically left out since values default to positive. | ||

Do not attempt to use two operators side by side, like in: | Do not attempt to use two operators side by side, like in: | ||

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | |

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

some_real := 37.5 * -2; | some_real := 37.5 * -2; | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

This may make perfect sense to you, since you're trying to multiply by negative-2. However, Pascal will be confused — it won't know whether to multiply or subtract. You can avoid this by using parentheses to clarify: | This may make perfect sense to you, since you're trying to multiply by negative-2. However, Pascal will be confused — it won't know whether to multiply or subtract. You can avoid this by using parentheses to clarify: | ||

− | <syntaxhighlight> | + | |

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang="pascal"> | ||

some_real := 37.5 * (-2); | some_real := 37.5 * (-2); | ||

</syntaxhighlight> | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

Line 66: | Line 82: | ||

Pascal cannot perform standard arithmetic operations on Booleans. There is a special set of Boolean operations. Also, you should not perform arithmetic operations on characters. | Pascal cannot perform standard arithmetic operations on Booleans. There is a special set of Boolean operations. Also, you should not perform arithmetic operations on characters. | ||

− | {| | + | {{TYNavigator|Chapter 1/Variables and Data Types|Chapter 1/Standard Functions}} |

− | |||

− | |||

− | |||

− | |} | ||

− | |||

− |

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1E - Assignment and Operations (author: Tao Yue, state: unchanged)

Once you have declared a variable, you can store values in it. This is called assignment.

To assign a value to a variable, follow this syntax:

```
variable_name := expression;
```

Note that unlike other languages, whose assignment operator is just an equals sign, Pascal uses a colon followed by an equals sign, similarly to how it's done in most computer algebra systems.

The expression can either be a single value:

```
some_real := 385.385837;
```

or it can be an arithmetic sequence:

```
some_real := 37573.5 * 37593 + 385.8 / 367.1;
```

The arithmetic operators in Pascal are:

Operator | Operation | Operands | Result |
---|---|---|---|

+ | Addition or unary positive | real or integer | real or integer |

- | Subtraction or unary negative | real or integer | real or integer |

* | Multiplication | real or integer | real or integer |

/ | Real division | real or integer | real |

div | Integer division | integer | integer |

mod | Modulus (remainder division) | integer | integer |

** div** and

**only work on**

`mod`*integers*.

**works on both**

`/`*reals*and

*integers*but will always yield a

*real*answer. The other operations work on both

*reals*and

*integers*. When mixing

*integers*and

*reals*, the result will always be a

*real*since data loss would result otherwise. This is why Pascal uses two different operations for division and integer division.

`7 / 2 = 3.5`(real), but

`7 div 2 = 3`(and

`7 mod 2 = 1`since that's the remainder).

Each variable can only be assigned a value that is of the same data type. Thus, you cannot assign a real value to an integer variable. However, certain data types will convert to a higher data type. This is most often done when assigning integer values to real variables. Suppose you had this variable declaration section:

```
var
some_int : integer;
some_real : real;
```

When the following block of statements executes:

```
some_int := 375;
some_real := some_int;
```

`some_real` will have a value of `375.0`.

Changing one data type to another is referred to as typecasting. Modern Pascal compilers support explicit typecasting in the manner of C, with a slightly different syntax. However, typecasting is usually used in low-level situations and in connection with object-oriented programming, and a beginning programming student will not need to use it. Here is information on typecasting from the GNU Pascal manual.

In Pascal, the minus sign can be used to make a value negative. The plus sign can also be used to make a value positive, but is typically left out since values default to positive.

Do not attempt to use two operators side by side, like in:

```
some_real := 37.5 * -2;
```

This may make perfect sense to you, since you're trying to multiply by negative-2. However, Pascal will be confused — it won't know whether to multiply or subtract. You can avoid this by using parentheses to clarify:

```
some_real := 37.5 * (-2);
```

The computer follows an order of operations similar to the one that you follow when you do arithmetic. Multiplication and division (`* / div mod`) come before addition and subtraction (`+ -`), and parentheses always take precedence. So, for example, the value of: `3.5*(2+3)` will be `17.5.`

Pascal cannot perform standard arithmetic operations on Booleans. There is a special set of Boolean operations. Also, you should not perform arithmetic operations on characters.