Difference between revisions of "Databases in Lazarus"

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#REDIRECT [[Databases]]
{{Database Programming}}
== Aim ==
This page aims to provide a general overview of using databases in Lazaraus, and to provide a home from which other database pages  can be linked
Database use in Lazarus (or FreePascal) is fundamentally based on the TDataset class.  This represents a table or query to your application.  However, like many other such fundamental classes, you don't use the TDataset class itself, you use a descendant of it.  There are many of these.  They provide access to different kinds of databases, such as local dbase or text files, or back-end databases such as PostgreSQL, Firebird, MySQL and so forth.  Some dataset descendants link directly to database tables, while others use additional components or libraries to perform the link. 
The [[Databases]] page documents such descendants.
Dataset descendants, being non-visual components are (usually) part of the Free Component Library (FCL) rather than the Lazarus Component Library (LCL).
== Using Datasets ==
Datasets can be used both programmatically and with visual controls.  A typical Lazarus database application will often use both methods.  In either case, the first step is to create the TDataset descendant, initialise it to connect to the table or query you want, and open it.  This can be done either in code at run time or by putting a component on your form and setting it's properties at design time.  The details of this vary considerably with different TDataset descendants, so see the various guides under [[Databases]] for what has to be done for your database.
When the dataset is opened, a set of field components are created, one for each field or column of the table or query you opened.  Each field component is a descendant of TField, appropriate to the particular data type of the field, eg, TStringField.
===Using datasets from code===
Programmatic access will be explained in more detail in [[Using Dataset and Field components]], but as a very simple overview:
* Use the TDataset descendant to open the table or query, filter the rows you want to see, and to move from row to row. 
* Use the TField descendants to:
**Access general information about fields
**Access the specific data values for the current row.  (use the As... properties, such as AsString, AsInteger, etc.)
* Access the fields of a TDataset descendant by using either:
**The fields property, eg Fields[0] is the first field,
**The FieldByName method, eg FieldByName('AGE') returns the field associated with the database field called 'AGE'
See [[Database_field_type]] for a list of field types.
===Using the visual (data-aware) controls===
To use databases in a simple, "RAD" style Lazarus application, you usually configure the dataset descendant at design time and  the use the data-aware controls.  To do this:
*Add the dataset descendant for the database of your choice, together with any supporting components, to your form, and open it (Set the 'Active' property to true)
*Add a TDatasource component (from the "Data Access" tab) to the form, and "link" it to the dataset (set the DataSet property)
*Add data-aware controls from the "Data Controls" tab to the form, and link each one to the DataSource (not dataset) component
*Most controls link to a single field, so you also need to set the Field for each tab.
See [[#Data Controls]] below for more details on the controls
=== Dataset State ===
Datasets can be in a number of states.  While there are quite a few (look up TDataSetState in the source), the main ones to be aware of initally are
    <td>The dataset is closed</td>
    <td>The user can browse through the dataset, looking at values</td>
    <td>The user can edit values on the current row.  Values are not saved until a post is performed.</td>
    <td>A new row has been added, and the user can set the values.  The record is not saved until a post is performed</td>
The other states are fairly transitory, and are usually handled "automatically".  They are used internally and in more complicated code.  If your database only views data, and you open the dataset at design time, you can largely ignore the state, as it will mostly be dsBrowse.  However, most applications will want to change the data at some stage.  If you are using data-aware controls, they will handle a lot of this automatically.  If you change the text in a DBEdit control, for example, it will put the dataset into dsEdit state - unless you are already in dsEdit or dsInsert.  If you "scroll" to a different record while the current state is dsEdit or dsInsert, that record will be "posted" and the dataset revert to dsBrowse.  However, if you are accessing the dataset from code, you will often have to change the state in code as well.  The dbNavigator control (see below) allows the user to change the state explicitly.
===Post and Cancel===
If you have edited or inserted a record, the new values are held in a buffer.
*Calling the dataset cancel method removes the new record (insert) or reverts the values to their previous values (edit). 
*Calling the dataset post method saves the values (edit) or record (insert).  In some dataset descendants, they will be written to the database immediately, while in others they will be stored in a list of updates until a further call is made to save all changes to the database.  Finally, even when they are written to the database, you may still have to call a "commit" method to make the database write them permanently.  All of this also varies considerably with the dataset descendant, so look up the details for the one you are using.
==Data Controls==
To use any of these controls, add the control to a form and set at least the datasource property.  Other key properties will be noted.
===Single Field Controls===
These controls all attach to a single field.  As well as datasource, set the field name.  Controls include:
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbtext.html|DBText control]] Displays a text field (readonly, no border)
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbedit.html|DBEdit control]] Displays / edits a text field as an edit box
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbmemo.html|DBMemo control]] Displays / edits a text field in a multi-line edit box
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbimage.html|DBImage control]] Displays a picture stored in a database as a BLOB
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdblistbox.html|DBListBox control]] and [[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbcombobox.html|DBComboBox Control]] Allow the user to insert values into a database field from the list of values in the Items property of the controls
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbcheckbox.html|DBCheckBox control]] Displays / edits a boolean field by checking/clearing a check box
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbradiogroup.html|DBRadioGroup control]] Displays the items as in a normal radio group, reading/setting the field value from a matching values list
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbcalendar.html|DBCalendar control]] Displays / edits a date field using a calendar panel
*[[doc:lcl/dbctrls/tdbgroupbox.html|DBGroupBox control]]
===[[doc:lcl/dbgrids/tdbgrid.html|DBGrid control]]===
This control can show a number of fields in a row/column layout - in fact by default it shows them all.  However, you can put entries into the [[doc:lcl/dbgrids/tdbgrid.columns.html|columns collection]] to restrict it to specific fields and to set the widths and titles of each column.
There seem to be some issues currently with editing in dbGrid, so while editing is certainly possible, it may be safer to use it as display only (set readonly to true) and provide single field controls for editing.
===[http://lazarus-ccr.sourceforge.net/docs/lcl/dbctrls/tdbnavigator.html Navigator Control]===
This control gives the user some direct control over the dataset.  It allows the user to:
* Move to the next or previous record, or to the start or end of the records
* Add a new record (equivalent to a dataset.insert method call)
* Put the dataset into edit mode
* Delete a record
* Post or Cancel current changes
* Refresh the data (useful in multiuser database applications)
Key Properties:
* VisibleButtons:  Lets you control what the user can do.  For example, if deletes are not allowed, hide the delete button.  If you have a DBGrid attached to the same dataset, you may decide you do not need the next and prior buttons.
* Width:  If you do not show all buttons, you may want to set the width to (height*number_of_visible_buttons)

Latest revision as of 02:00, 25 October 2019

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