Function/ru

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Функция — это подпрограмма, которая, в отличие от процедур, возвращает значение. Вызов функции практически заменяется возвращаемым значением. Если состояние переключателя компилятора {$extendedSyntax} отключено, вызовы функций не могут отображаться как непродуктивные операторы, но должны быть целиком или частью выражения.

Слово function является зарезервированным словом.

Return value

In addition to a normal procedure, a function’s formal signature contains a return type: The formal parameter list has to be succeeded by a colon and return type. For instance the following function returns a Boolean.

function myFunction(const firstParameter: real): Boolean;

When implementing functions there are several ways to define the function’s return value.

 1program functionDemo(input, output, stderr);
 2
 3{$mode objFPC}
 4
 5// traditional syntax:
 6// the result is stored in the variable
 7// its name is the same as the function's
 8function myLine(const x: real): real;
 9begin
10	myLine := 0.5 * x + 2;
11end;

If {$modeswitch result+}, which is set by {$mode objFPC} and {$mode Delphi}, inside the implementation block the special identifier result is available, too:

13// using special `result` identifier
14function myParabola(const x: real): real;
15begin
16	result := sqr(x) - 1;
17end;

Additionally, in {$mode objFPC} the routine exit will set the return value, too, and leave the stack frame. In the previous two examples further statements could have appeared, and they would have been executed, whilst after an exit the routine is done. This is the behavior a return statement in C or other programming languages has.

19// using exit routine
20function even(const x: longint): Boolean;
21begin
22	exit(not odd(x));
23end;

In assembly language other rules apply. If the return type is an integral value, the accumulator register is used, provided it fits in there:

25// in assembly language:
26// return type fits into a single register => use accumulator register
27function zero(const x: int64): Boolean;
28{$ifDef CPUx86_64}
29assembler; register;
30{$asmMode intel}
31asm
32	// xor modifies flags => put it in front of test
33	xor rax, rax     // rax := 0    (remove residue)
34	
35	test x, x        // x = 0 ?
36	setz al          // rax := ZF
37	
38	// When you examine the assembler output
39	// you will notice the compiler automatically inserts code
40	// that moves the contents of rax to the right spot on the stack,
41	// unless the noStackFrame hint
42	// (automatically set by some optimization levels)
43	// instructs the compiler to omit the stack frame if possible.
44end;
45{$else}
46begin
47	result := x = 0;
48end;
49{$endIf}

Otherwise, depending on which {$asmMode} is active, the @result (Intel) or __result (AT&T) macro can be used.

51type
52	bodyAttributes = record
53		surfaceArea: real;
54		volume: real;
55	end;
56
57// in assembly language:
58// return type doesn't fit into accumulator => @result macro gives address
59function sphere(const radius: real): bodyAttributes;
60{$ifDef CPUx86_64}
61assembler;
62{$asmMode intel}
63const
64	three: longint = 3;
65	four: longint = 4;
66var
67	r: real;
68asm
69	pextrq r, radius, 0 // r := (@radius+0)^
70	lea rax, @result    // rax := @result
71	fld r               // radius
72	
73	fld st(0)           // radius radius
74	fild four           // 4 radius radius
75	fldpi               // pi 4 radius radius
76	fmul                // 4*pi radius radius
77	fxch                // radius 4*pi radius
78	fld st(0)           // radius radius 4*pi radius
79	fmul                // radius^2 4*pi radius
80	fmul                // 4*pi*radius^2 radius
81	fst [rax].bodyAttributes.surfaceArea
82	
83	fmul                // 4*pi*radius^3
84	fild three          // 3 4*pi*radius^3
85	fdivp               // 4/3*pi*radius^3
86	fst [rax].bodyAttributes.volume
87end;
88{$else}
89begin
90	sphere.surfaceArea := 4 * pi() * sqr(radius);
91	sphere.volume := 4 / 3 * pi() * sqr(radius) * abs(radius);
92end;
93{$endIf}

Originally Pascal expected exact one assignment to the result variable (whichever is used). FPC however does not prohibit multiple assignments. It will emit a warning if none of the possible result identifiers were used or the exit routine is not written.

Warning
Function result does not seem to be set
You can get this warning if the compiler thinks that a function return value is not set. This will not be displayed for assembler procedures, or procedures that contain assembler blocks.
95begin
96	writeLn(sphere(2.0).surfaceArea);
97end.

Note, in the case of operator overloads, a special form of a function, a result variable identifier has to be declared in the formal signature. See the article for details.

Remarks

Pure functions are functions that do not depend on an external state.

See also