Label

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The label keyword is used for declaration of labels (markers for unconditional jumps using goto keyword) used further in the unit/program. It is a reserved word.

Pascal

To declare a label (not defining it) label starts a section with (comma separated) identifiers:

1program labelDemo(input, output, stderr);
2
3{$goto on}
4// familiarize the compiler with symbols
5// that are meant as 'goto' targets
6label
7	// the symbol 'done' becomes of "type" label
8	done;

You then define the label, that means associating a symbol with a statement and effectively in the compiled code with an address, by writing the previously declared label in a statement block followed by a colon:

 9var
10	n: qword;
11	x, sum, arithmeticMean: real;
12begin
13	n := 0;
14	sum := 0;
15	while true do
16	begin
17		readLn(x);
18		if x < 0 then
19		begin
20			// leave loop and continue at 'done'
21			goto done;
22		end;
23		sum := sum + x;
24		inc(n);
25	end;
26done:
27	arithmeticMean := sum / n;
28	writeLn('arithemetic mean = ', arithmeticMean);
29end.

Pascal imposes further restrictions on labels: Labels have to be associated with statements: Putting a label right before an end is not allowed. To bypass that, you can insert an empty instruction ; right after the label definition.

In addition to normal identfiers, labels may be non-negative integers.

Assembler

A label section is also required for jump targets in asm-blocks, unless the @-address-operator is used.

 1program sumExample(input, output, stderr);
 2
 3{ iteratively calculates the sum over first n integers }
 4function iterativeSumFirstNIntegers(const n: longword): qword;
 5{$ifdef CPUX86_64} // ============= optimized implementation
 6// assembler modifier appended to routine declaration
 7assembler;
 8// you have to familiarize the compiler with symbols
 9// which are meant to be jump targets
10{$goto on}
11label
12	isfni_iterate;
13{$asmMode intel}
14asm
15	xor rax, rax // rax := 0
16	// ecx is used as counter by loop instruction
17	mov ecx, n   // ecx := n
18isfni_iterate:
19	add rax, qword(ecx) // rax := rax + ecx
20	loop isfni_iterate  // dec(ecx)
21	// if ecx <> 0 then goto isfni_iterate
22	
23	// the @result macro represents the functions return value
24	mov @result, rax // result := rax
25// note, a list of modified registers (here ['rax', 'ecx'])
26//       is ignored for pure assembler routines
27end;
28{$else} // ========================== default implementation
29var
30	i: longword;
31	x: qword;
32begin
33	x := 0; // mov rax, 0
34	for i := n downto 1 do // mov ecx, n
35	begin
36		x := x + i; // add rax, ecx
37	end; // loop isfni_iterate
38	iterativeSumFirstNIntegers := x; // mov @result, rax
39end;
40{$endif}
41
42// M A I N =================================================
43var
44	n: longword;
45begin
46	readLn(n);
47	writeLn(iterativeSumFirstNIntegers(n));
48end.

Of course in a production program, you would use an algorithm applying the formula sum := (n * (n + 1)) div 2 (“Gaussian sum formula”).

See also