# Fibonacci number

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The Fibonacci Sequence is the series of numbers:

```
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, …
```

The idea is to add the two last numbers in order to produce the next value.

## generation

The following implementations show the *principle* of how to calculate Fibonacci numbers.
They lack of input checks.
Depending on your preferences you might either want to generate a run-time error (e. g. by `{$rangeChecks on}`

or utilizing `system.runError`

), raise an exception, or simply return a bogus value indicating something went wrong.

### recursive implementation

```
3 type
4 /// domain for Fibonacci function
5 /// where result is within nativeUInt
6 // You can not name it fibonacciDomain,
7 // since the Fibonacci function itself
8 // is defined for all whole numbers
9 // but the result beyond F(n) exceeds high(nativeUInt).
10 fibonacciLeftInverseRange =
11 {$ifdef CPU64} 0..93 {$else} 0..47 {$endif};
12
13 {**
14 implements Fibonacci sequence recursively
15
16 \param n the index of the Fibonacci number to retrieve
17 \returns the Fibonacci value at n
18 }
19 function fibonacci(const n: fibonacciLeftInverseRange): nativeUInt;
20 begin
21 // optimization: then part gets executed most of the time
22 if n > 1 then
23 begin
24 fibonacci := fibonacci(n - 2) + fibonacci(n - 1);
25 end
26 else
27 begin
28 // since the domain is restricted to non-negative integers
29 // we can bluntly assign the result to n
30 fibonacci := n;
31 end;
32 end;
```

### iterative implementation

This one is preferable for its run-time behavior.

```
13 {**
14 implements Fibonacci sequence iteratively
15
16 \param n the index of the Fibonacci number to calculate
17 \returns the Fibonacci value at n
18 }
19 function fibonacci(const n: fibonacciLeftInverseRange): nativeUInt;
20 type
21 /// more meaningful identifiers than simple integers
22 relativePosition = (previous, current, next);
23 var
24 /// temporary iterator variable
25 i: longword;
26 /// holds preceding fibonacci values
27 f: array[relativePosition] of nativeUInt;
28 begin
29 f[previous] := 0;
30 f[current] := 1;
31
32 // note, in Pascal for-loop-limits are inclusive
33 for i := 1 to n do
34 begin
35 f[next] := f[previous] + f[current];
36 f[previous] := f[current];
37 f[current] := f[next];
38 end;
39
40 // assign to previous, bc f[current] = f[next] for next iteration
41 fibonacci := f[previous];
42 end;
```

## lookup

While calculating the Fibonacci number every time it is needed requires almost no space, it takes a split second of time. Applications heavily relying on Fibonacci numbers definitely want to use a lookup table instead. And yet in general, do not calculate what is already a known fact. Since the Fibonacci sequence doesn’t change, actually calculating it is a textbook demonstration but not intended for production use.

Nevertheless an actual implementation is omitted here, since everyone wants to have it differently, a different flavor.

## see also

- Fibonacci numbers in the on-line encyclopedia of integer sequences
- Some assembly routine which uses the C calling convention that calculates the nth Fibonacci number
- Fibonacci sequence § “Pascal” on RosettaCode.org
- GNU multiple precision arithmetic library’s functions
`mpz_fib_ui`

and`mpz_fib2_ui`

- Lucas number, a similar series with different initial values
- Tao Yue Solution to Fibonacci Sequence Problem