Office Automation/it

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Questo articolo si applica solo a Windows.

Vedi anche: Multiplatform Programming Guide

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La capacità di interagire con i software di Office per generare fogli di calcolo, documenti di testo, presentazioni da programma costituisce un aiuto incalcolabile negli ambienti di lavoro e può far risparmiare molto tempo specialmente in operazioni ripetitive.

Una tipica applicazione è quella di trasformare files in formato arbitrario in file di Excel, operazione realizzabile in modo molto più efficiente attraverso la programmazione.

Usare l'interfaccia UNO Bridge di OpenOffice

OpenOffice ha interfacce di programmazione per C++, Java, JavaScript e Python. Su Windows, OpenOffice può essere manipolato anche in Pascal mediante l'Automazione COM (vedi sotto), ma attualmente non vi è un modo semplice di usare il protocollo UNO (Universal Network Objects) da Pascal su OS X e Linux. Se si è interessati a sviluppare un collegamento per OO per il Pascal, si può far riferimento a questi link:

api.openoffice.org

About Bridges

Usare l'Automazione COM per interagire con OpenOffice e Microsoft Office

L'Automazione tramite COM (Component Object Model) è unica di Windows, quindi i seguenti due esempi non funzionano su OS X e Linux. Per queste piattaforme si faccia riferimento a Making do without Windows COM Automation. Se si ha bisogno di programmare solo documenti di word processing, si veda XDev Toolkit.

OpenOffice su Windows

Ecco un esempio di come aprire un documento da programma usando il server di Automazione di OpenOffice (solo su Windows).

program TestOO;

{$IFDEF FPC}
 {$MODE Delphi}
{$ELSE}
 {$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
{$ENDIF} 

uses
  SysUtils, Variants, ComObj;

const
  ServerName = 'com.sun.star.ServiceManager';
var          
  Server     : Variant;
  Desktop    : Variant;
  LoadParams : Variant;
  Document   : Variant;
  TextCursor : Variant;
begin
  if Assigned(InitProc) then
    TProcedure(InitProc);

  try
    Server := CreateOleObject(ServerName);
  except
    WriteLn('Unable to start OO.');
    Exit;
  end;

  Desktop := Server.CreateInstance('com.sun.star.frame.Desktop');

  LoadParams := VarArrayCreate([0, -1], varVariant);

   {Create new document}
  Document := Desktop.LoadComponentFromURL('private:factory/swriter', '_blank', 0, LoadParams);

   {or Open existing} //you must use forward slashes, not backward!
  //Document := Desktop.LoadComponentFromURL('file:///C:/my/path/mydoc.doc', '_blank', 0, LoadParams); 

  TextCursor := Document.Text.CreateTextCursor;

   {Insert existing document}  //Substitute your path and doc
  TextCursor.InsertDocumentFromURL('file:///C:/my/path/mydoc.doc', LoadParams);
end.

Office su Windows

Ecco un esempio di come aprire un documento da programma usando il server di Automazione di Word (solo su Windows). L'esempio funziona sia in delphi che in fpc.

program TestMsOffice;

{$IFDEF FPC}
 {$MODE Delphi}
{$ELSE}
 {$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
{$ENDIF} 

uses
  SysUtils, Variants, ComObj;

const
  ServerName = 'Word.Application';
var
  Server     : Variant;
  w:widestring;
begin
  if Assigned(InitProc) then
    TProcedure(InitProc);

  try
    Server := CreateOleObject(ServerName);
  except
    WriteLn('Unable to start Word.');
    Exit;
  end;

   {Open existing document}  //Substitute your path and doc
  w:= UTF8Decode('c:\my\path\mydoc.doc');
  Server.Documents.Open(w); //OLE uses BSTR (http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms221069(v=vs.85).aspx). Only widestring is compatible with BSTR in FPC, so conversion is needed for nonlatin chars.
  Server.Visible := True;  {Make Word visible}

end.


Here is a sample code how to work in an open Word document, using the Word Automation server.

var
  Server: Variant;
begin
  try
    Server := GetActiveOleObject('Word.Application');
  except
    try
      ShowMessage('Word not already open create a Word Object');
      // If no instance of Word is running, try to Create a new Word Object
      Server := CreateOleObject('Word.Application');
    except
      ShowMessage('Cannot start Word/Word not installed ?');
      Exit;
    end;
  end;
end;

Limitations: Since End is a reserved word in FPC it shall be used as a parameter after the & sign.

Server.ActiveDocument.Application.Selection.start:=Server.ActiveDocument.Application.Selection.&end+1;


A lot of examples for Excel are available on the German wiki page ExcelAutomation/de.

Using the fpXMLXSDExport unit

FPC 2.6 and newer contain the fpXMLXSDExport unit, part of the FCL-DB export components. With that, you can export datasets to various XML formats, including a Microsoft Access-compatible format and a Microsoft Excel-compatible format.

The Access format can output XML with or without an embedded XSD data/table definition. Note that exporting binary/BLOB type data needs additional action at the Access import end, as Access does not support proper binary fields, only OLE fields.

In the Excel format, multiline text fields are not supported at the moment: the line ends are removed during the export.

Lazarus provides a visual component for this: after installing the lazdbexport package, you will see the TXMLXSDExporter component on the Data Export tab

See fpXMLXSDExport for details.

Using the FPSpreadsheet Library

Another way to automate repetitive work with spreadsheets is to use the FPSpreadsheet library. It can read and write spreadsheets in several formats and it doesn't require having any external application installed on the machine.

The advantages are that fpspreadsheet is 100% Object Pascal code, and it requires no external libraries or programs.

Writing an Excel file using ADO

please write me.

Reading/Writing an Excel file using OLE

This method needs Excel to be installed on the user's machine because it uses OLE to access it.

Keep in mind that this method starts Excel in the background, which opens the file and works with it like a real user.

  • Create a new form with button, stringgrid and edit.
  • Create a new Excel file and fill a few cells.


excel123.png


Example - Open/Read Excel file:

uses .....  comobj;

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);

Var   XLApp: OLEVariant;
      x,y: byte;
      path: variant;

begin
 XLApp := CreateOleObject('Excel.Application'); // requires comobj in uses
 try
   XLApp.Visible := False;         // Hide Excel
   XLApp.DisplayAlerts := False;
   path := edit1.Text;
   XLApp.Workbooks.Open(Path);     // Open the Workbook
   for x := 1 to 4 do
    begin
     for y := 1 to 6 do
      begin
       SG.Cells[x,y] := XLApp.Cells[y,x].Value;  // fill stringgrid with values
      end;
    end;
 finally
   XLApp.Quit;
   XLAPP := Unassigned;
  end;

If you want to make some changes and you want them to write back into the Excel, file you can use:

XLApp.Cells[x,y].Value := SG.Cells[y,x];

If you want to save:

XLApp.ActiveWorkBook.Save;

Read/Writing an Excel file using the SpreadSheet Interface Component

The component provides a library interface, abstracting the Excel COM and the Calc Open Office UNO interfaces. The component is available here: http://tcoq.free.fr/composants.html (Link verified in May 2016)

Since Automation is not yet available, but COM is available, the Excel interface component provides a set of Lazarus classes encapsulating calls to the Excel COM interface (the one below the Automation). It hides most of the drudgery of working with low-level code. Be careful, this is a work-in-progress. Use it at your own risk.

Functionality:

  • creating and loading excel workbooks,
  • saving workbooks,
  • creating and accessing sheets,
  • getting values and setting values (and formulas) in cells,
  • getting and changing color of cells,
  • getting and changing column height and row width,
  • creating comments,
  • creating shapes,
  • creating charts.

Inits first.

  IMPLEMENTATION
  USES
    ExcelUtilities,
    SpreadSheetInterfaces ;

  VAR
   aCell    : IRange ;
   aValue   : OleVariant ; // Not sure about this, but it works. ie( Edit.Text := STRING(aValue); )
   ExcelApp : TExcelApplication ;
   ExcelWbs : IWorkBooks ;

  ExcelBook   : IWorkBook ;
  ExcelSheet  : ISheet ;
  ExcelSheets : ISheets ;

Getting a sheet is simple:

  // Initializing the common excel workbook:
  ExcelApp         := TExcelApplication.Create(nil) ;
  ExcelApp.Active  := True ;
  ExcelApp.Visible := True ;

  ExcelWbs    := ExcelApp.WorkBooks ;
  ExcelBook   := ExcelWbs.Add ;
  ExcelSheets := ExcelBook.Sheets ;
  ExcelSheet  := ExcelSheets.Sheet(1) ;

Playing around with cells is simple too:

  // adding a value
  aCell := ExcelSheet.Cells(1, 1) ;
  aCell.Value := 10;

  // adding a formula
  aCell := ExcelSheet.Cells(2,1) ;
  aCell.Formula := '=A1+10' ;

  // getting the value computed in Excel
  aValue := aCell.Value ;


The test case provided has many more examples.

Copy HTML to the clipboard

You can copy HTML to the clipboard which is understood by many applications. This way you can copy formatted text. For those applications that only understand text put plain text too.

Microsoft Office applications require HTML to be pasted onto the clipboard in a more complex format than described here. See here for an example that works with Microsoft Office.


uses
  ClipBrd;
...
  // register the mime type for text/html. You can do this once at program start:
  ClipbrdFmtHTML:=RegisterClipboardFormat('text/html');
...
  // Clear any previous formats off the clipboard before starting
  Clipboard.Clear;

  // put text and html on the clipboard. Other applications will choose the best format automatically.
  ThePlainUTF8Text:='Simple text';
  Clipboard.AsText:=ThePlainUTF8Text; 

  AsHTML:='<b>Formatted</b> text'; // text with formattings
  Clipboard.AddFormat(ClipbrdFmtHTML,AsHTML[1],length(AsHTML));

See also

External links