Generics are a native implementation of class templates. Generics are sometimes called parametrized types. FPC has had official support for generics since version 2.2.
The easiest way to get started with generics is to use the fgl unit, which is a prototype unit for base system generic classes. So far it contains a few basic classes:
The following simple example shows how to store multiple instances of a user defined class in a list:
uses fgl; type TMyClass = class(TObject) fld1 : string; end; TMyList = specialize TFPGObjectList<TMyClass>; var list : TMyList; c : TMyClass; begin // create the list and add an element list := TMyList.Create; c := TMyClass.Create; c.fld1 := 'c1'; list.Add(c); // retrieve an element from the list c := list;
Custom Generic Classes
If the generics defined in the fgl unit do not suit your needs, you may need to define your own generic classes from scratch using the underlying language primitives.
A generic class is defined using the keyword generic before the class name and use in class declaration:
type generic TList<T> = class Items: array of T; procedure Add(Value: T); end;
Example of generic class implementation:
implementation procedure TList.Add(Value: T); begin SetLength(Items, Length(Items) + 1); Items[Length(Items) - 1] := Value; end;
A generic class can be simply specialized for a particular type by using the specialize keyword.
Type TIntegerList = specialize TList<Integer>; TPointerList = specialize TList<Pointer>; TStringList = specialize TList<string>;
1. The compiler parses a generic, but instead of generating code it stores all tokens in a token buffer inside the PPU file.
2. The compiler parses a specialization; for this it loads the token buffer from the PPU file and parses that again. It replaces the generic parameters (in most examples "T") by the particular given type (e.g. LongInt, TObject). The code basically appears as if the same class had been written as the generic but with T replaced by the given type.
Therefore in theory there should be no speed differences between a "normal" class and a generic one.